Xa Pho is one of the minority ethnic groups in Lao Cai province. They reside mainly in Sa Pa, Van Ban, Bao Thang, Bao Yen and Lao Cai. Traditional culture of Xa Pho is diverse and rich in both content and type, in particular the art of decoration on the dress. With the delicacy of the brains and clever hands of the women, they embroidered beautifully dressed in a flawless manner to honor the look of the wearer. That proved the aesthetic thinking of Sister Pomeranian women reached the pinnacle of decorative arts, shaping and pattern on the dress.
Phat Xa dep is used mainly for red, green, yellow, white ... to dye embroidery only on the costumes and accessories such as scarf, bag ... In decoration, Sister Xa Pho depicts hot colors, like red, to make their dresses stand out amidst the immensity of the thousands.
1. The art of decorating on Xa Deputy:
- Women's Xa deputy dress:
Xa Phuc's dress consists of: Towels, dresses, skirts, belts are handmade, with materials of cotton fabric, self-weaving, self-embroidery and dyed themselves. Women wear a lapel (short skirt) and long-heeled skirts, both dresses and skirts are embroidered. Xa Pho women's shirt is a type of undershirt, not open, square collar, the front and the hindquarters are the same, the fabric between the fabric in the middle and back. Straps, sleeveless, bears.
The pattern on the shirt is divided into two distinct parts: From the neck down to the chest (12 cm) embroidered, attached along 4 lines of white beads, embroidery twisted ropes, parallel lines with colorful indicators with gam hot colors on the material of indigo, black, blue, red, white materials combine the color of the fabric background to create the delicate use of color, skillful and elaborate in embroidery techniques. valve. The lower part of the embroidered body is thick, the pattern is symmetrical with the geometric pattern is the square, triangle, crown shape. The sleeve is not patterned, just embroidered pattern near the wrist with a twist pattern, geometry symbol of strength, bird's eye, pheasant's eyes, fern leaf shape, triangular shape. All colors are harmoniously coordinated, but dark red is the dominant color on Xà Pho women's clothing.
The Xa Pho women's skirt was sewn with a scoop, the skirt was covered with two pieces of indigo dyed fabric and decorated with elaborate patterns along the length of the skirt. The pattern of the skirt is embroidered with rhinestones spanned each other, alternating with brilliant embroidery. The legs are embroidered with sequins of pine trees, below are water or serpentine shapes, crowns and triangles crossed.
In the midst of the skirts and dresses of the Xar deputy were separated by a waist made of white cloth with many tassels at the end. The scarf became a highlight and created a sense of harmony in the colorful colors that made the costumes of Xa Pho women more attractive.
Xa Phap girls (Photo: TL)
The average length of the skirt is 80cm, 65cm wide, scissors cut after the new pair into the body of the skirt, 8cm high scraper, 104cm wide ring, scraper ring smaller than the body of the skirt. Skirt to smooth from the waist down to 12cm, the rest embroidered horizontal pattern of the skirt, top-down can be divided into three patterns:
+ Round 1 (11cm wide) pattern of mountains, crowns, fringes, triangular box, fish bone, straight line parallel with the colorful color, embroidery thick. The end of this embroidery ring is also the place where the skirt is connected horizontally.
+ Round 2 (width 27cm) embroidered pattern and evenly, floral pattern, fringing, geometry in the colors green, red, white.
+ Round 3 (width 24cm) embroidered dense pattern on the entire lower part with white pattern, red, blue rhombus, fringe, triangular, pine, pine.
- Loose 164cm long, 68cm wide made of white fabric or cotton fabric made of cotton, rim carefully to avoid fringed fabric. When folding towel to 4 in the length of the towel and tie to the outside of the waistband, depending on the belly or small size of each person to tie.
- Towels are usually cotton square towels are bought from the outside, not made by themselves. Towel is not decorated pattern, but it is wool colored wool scarf, blue, red, yellow ...
- Purses are used to store the items needed, and used at all times, at wedding weddings for needlework, rice paddy ... Bag made of black indigo fabric, The whole length is 52cm, 34cm wide. The bottom is not grafted fabric, the mouth is. The bag is stretched from side to side (with the bottom up) with a width of 14cm to the other side (transplant). Decorative pattern on the body of the bag is the shape of pine trees, parallel lines on both sides of the mouth of the bag (7cm), 3 valance and 3 points of beads (four wings) red, white and blue. The sides of the bag (the pull on the strap bag) is also decorated with pine trees, fringed edges, beads are very colorful, meticulous.
- Comes with costume jewelry such as silver necklace, ear ring, bracelets worn on his body shape for the wearer. Holidays, festivals, parties or weddings in the village are filled with flowers (each woman in traditional costume looks beautiful).
Xa Pho ethnic women's clothing is used to serve the needs of living, dressing people, it also shows the level of embroidery with high technology. The costumes are decorated with colorful patterns, mainly in warm colors, which are beyond the natural color, reflecting aesthetics and aesthetics. They show the desire to live fiercely, expressed through traditional costumes of their own nation.
On Xa Pho depot dress (Photo: TL)
- Men's Xa deputy uniform:
Men's Xa depot clothes include: Towels, dresses, pants, belts are handmade, with materials of self-made cotton, self-embroidery dyed black indigo. On the vest has special vestiges, the cut from the two sides, 10cm from the hem of the shirt with stitching only color (red, yellow, red)
- 70cm dress, this is a blouse, 4 shoulders, shoulders, sleeveless. The posterior body is made up of two pieces of cloth (27 cm wide each), sewn into a line at the back. The front part is a two-piece buttoned opening with two daisies with six rows of buttoned fabric, which are sewn into small wires, one end of the knot, one end into a circle locking the button. The collar is made up of the body, the fabric around the red phin.
Two-sided symmetrical ribbon and 13cm back embroidery, embroidered red and white embroidered with beads of white beads, fringed hem and tunic, along the back of the shirt. Sleeve length 35 cm, sewing sleeves round 12cm wide, on sleeves embroidery pattern embroidery rope 4.5cm horizontal hose.
- Trousers: The trousers are lame leg pants, the usual length is 110cm (some taller, the pants will be longer), sewn in diagonal style, pulled from the waist to the pants . Scabbard 8cm cut outside the new pair to the body. Scrambled to the dock is 35cm, scraper does not slip so when the right one put on the side and pull to the side then tie the strip. 29cm wide trousers, tube edges are folded in with a small brace.
- Towel: Made of a piece of black cloth with a length of 140cm, 12cm wide, double folded in the length of the towel and wrapped like turban folding of the Kinh.
- The only type of shirt is a black indigo shirt, chunky chest without buttoned-up chiffon dress, two sides and decorative pattern. The jacket is 55 - 60cm in length, 40 - 45cm in width, 35-38cm long in sleeves, 28cm in sleeves. The groom's lapel is not embroidered as much as the bride's gown, but it is mainly grafted with white beads and bears are also grafted in beads, The armpits are also decorated with beads along the saw and flowers with four-pointed beads. The collar is beaded beaded double "cross". The sleeves are also decorated with floral patterns, the inscription of the inscription, and the borders are carefully sewn. The sleeves are trimmed with a rim of a different color than the background of the garment. The rope does not come loose when it is working. The body of the shirt is not as round or round as some other peoples, but it is slightly cut down slightly and is bordered by a small flower border and carefully sewn with careful stitches.
2. Artistic decoration on Xa dep
The sophisticated costumes show the ingenious qualities of the woman, the Xa Pho woman made the wonder of creating a beautiful and attractive outfit different from many other ethnic groups. Many decorative measures such as color combinations, embroidery patterns, using beads on the shirt ...
Impressed by the contact with the Xa Pho women's clothing is the arrangement of the colors in the layout of colors and motifs are repeated in accordance with the rhythm creates many motifs pattern. In the form of embroidery, link the thread color, beaded, the woman has sketched and expressed their thoughts, feelings on the fabric .... It can be said, with the enthusiasm they have create the soul for the casual outfits, lifting them into works of art with aesthetic value, lasting with time.
Decorative patterns combined with color and harmonic composition have become iconic, symbolizing the high aesthetic factor of its creator. In the area of Xa Pho, Sa Pa, on the body of the statue Sa Mu tree standing straight in the sky is the symbol of the survival of the Xa Pho, which is a unique cultural characteristics that not all ethnic groups. have been. These motifs have a consistent relationship with some patterns on the shirt, dresses to form a complete whole.
The main color on Xa Pho is the black indigo, decorative pattern is decorated with red thread is the main color, to decorate embroidery on the dress, skirt. With the use of color threads to create warm colors contributes to the layout of the plot more closely. Reduced color indicates that the person who made it has to weigh, calculate in great detail from the needle point, the first thread until the end. Efforts, persistence and aesthetics have created a characteristic pattern, a way to reduce the color on the costumes that make up the traditional values of the Xa Pho.
The layout of the trimmings on the shirt is not evenly distributed on the towel which is scaled, the pattern of embroidery, the embroidery technique for each part of the garment, when coordinating them united in a given body by the people. The patterns are decorated frills running a band around the band, shirt, skirt. Decorations on the towel often repeat at least once on the dress, but if decorated in the shirt is not used again in the dress and vice versa, improvised by the artisan to make the product. Repeated pieces are decorated with relatively large positions on the body, skirt or bear skirt.
Tailoring is strictly regulated, based on the overall layout of the shirt, the array of decorative patterns from the collar down to the chest is the main array, the body to the bear and the hand is the side. But if separated, only the trim pieces can stand independently. In the layout of the rectangular body of the body is the main part of 2/3 of the project, the remaining part is (bear barge). Texture used in the array decorated in the body of a shoulder-shaped flowers, arranged two interlocking form a rectangular shape, the outside is bordered by the pattern of the rectangular pattern. Be it closed or even the decoration is a star pattern. Only a simple pattern, but the artisans have deftly arranged the layout is slightly spread, plus embroidery or floating embroidery techniques effectively for the surface of the concave down, the side walls floating should bring about the change of space on the plane of the fabric. Thanks to the transformation of color and treatment, the transformation of the shape into diamonds, triangles, diagonal lines, straight lines and horizontal lines, no longer see the hardening of the road. in geometry.
In addition to the motifs of the shoulders, the pattern under the body also uses lizard-shaped butt-shaped motifs, hills but depending on the arrangement of colors or shapes, the overall layout of the concentric rhomboid and squares are evenly spaced. Each of these decorations represents a symbolic form that is accepted by the community as snakes, pythons, lightning bolts, stars ... These are the signature motifs of the community. Xa Pho people in Lao Cai. These motifs often swap positions on a dress, if decorated with the name of the towel, the body is not decorated on the skirt or decorated on the towel, the dress is not seen on the shirt.
It can be said that the art of decorating the clothes of the Xa Pho is a kind of folk art is very diverse, bearing many imprints in the culture of belief. Dressed on the clothes of the people show the love of nature, living in harmony with nature to create close proximity and harmony between humans and the universe, with the universe.
Nguyễn Ngọc Thanh